Li-Byarlay lab published a new paper on the IAPV bee virus
Honey bees, the most important managed pollinators, are experiencing unsustainable mortality. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) causes economically important disease in honey bees, and it is emerging as a model system to study viral pathogen-host interactions in pollinators. The pupation stage is important for bee development but individuals are particularly vulnerable for parasitic mite infestations and viral infections. Currently, it is unclear how honey bee pupae respond to this virus. However, these responses, including gene expression and DNA methylomic changes, are critical to understand so that anti-viral genes can be identified and new anti-viral strategies be developed. Here, we use next-generation sequencing tools to reveal the dynamic changes of gene expression and DNA methylation as pupae succumb to IAPV infections after 5, 20, and 48 h. We found that IAPV causes changes in regions of DNA methylation more at the beginning of infection than later. The activity of several common insect immune pathways are affected by the IAPV infections, as are some other fundamental biological processes. Expression of critical enzymes in DNA methylation are also induced by IAPV in a temporal manner. By comparing our results to other virus studies of honey bees and fruit flies, we identified common anti-viral immune responses. Thus, our study provides new insight on the genome responses of honey bees over the course of a fatal virus infection with theoretical and practical implications.